Journal Pedagogical Almanac

Education of Children with Special Educational Needs

Inna Ivanova

Pages: 65-78


Over the last few years in the educational system of Bulgaria are made important changes, aimed at integrating children with special needs. The Ministry of Education and Science made synchronize their legislation accordance with the requirements of the European Union, thereby improving educational standards and work towards quality education. In the past in Bulgaria e is applied the so-called “medical model”, aimed at determining disability, or handicap violations suffered in the process of physical, mental or sensory development of children. According to this approach, children are distributed in different groups depending on their disability and the education is made in special programs prepared by teachers with specific approaches and teaching methods. Nowadays more and more requires so-called “social model”, which takes into account the educational needs and potential of children learning and the various environmental impacts. The term “children with special needs”, that includes all children with disabilities and difficulties, already found its definition in the legal educational system. In Bulgaria, the education of children with special needs shall be governed mainly by the Education Act, which provides for the establishment of special kindergartens, schools and service units for children with chronic illnesses and children with special educational needs. Competent authorities to implement the education of children with special educational needs are: Council of Ministers, Ministry of Education and Science, Municipalities, Centers for social rehabilitation and integration on people of disadvantaged social status. In Bulgaria there are institutions providing educational services outside the system of public education. These include homes for children and young people with mentally retarded and educational and socio-educational institutions. For the realization of children with special needs as individuals and professionals must take care not only state, and the society in which they are born, live and in which they want to achieve.



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