Крънският апанаж и въпросът за навлизането на феодалните отношения в България през ХІV век

Николай Овчаров Стопанска академия „Димитър А. Ценов“ – Свищов, България

Страници: 88-104
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54664/DCZY5982


One of the important regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire was that of Kran, covering the Sub-Balkan fields between Sliven and Klisura during the 13th – 14th centuries. As part of the Bulgarian state, it was mentioned in the Dubrovnik Charter of Tsar Ivan Asen II. At the end of the 13th and in the 14th century, the Kran region became a classic appanage granted by the king to his closest relatives as a consequence of the intensifying feudalization in Bulgaria during that period. As such, it was possessed by representatives of three ruling dynasties one after the other: the Smiletses, the Terters, and the Shishmans. They often fought each other for the Kran region, and Byzantium intervened in these struggles. Undoubtedly, the most noteworthy owner of this appanage was Despot Aldimir Terter. He was granted the title of despot at the very end of the 13th century by Smiltsena, the widow of Tsar Smilets, and afterwards he was loyal to Tsar Theodore Svetoslav. In the early years of the 14th century, Aldimir successfully defended the southern territories of the Bulgarian Empire and his region as well from the incursions of Sebastokrator Radoslav Smilets and the Romans. However, in 1305, he fell out of favour with Tarnovgrad, and Kran was taken away from him. Later on, Voisil Smilets also failed to win recognition as a ruler of Kran so that the region can finally change hands and become a possession of the Shishman dynasty, particularly of Despot Sratsimir and his wife, Kera Petritsa. A very important find is a black-and-white photograph from the beginning of the 20th century. It shows the remains of a large medieval fortress that existed in the northern part of present-day Kazanlak until 1916 when it was destroyed. After a detailed study, it turned out to be a typical attack-withstanding residential castle, which, judging by perfect analogies in the Balkans, was built in the first half of the 14th century. It can be safely argued that this was the fortified residence of the rulers of the Kran region in these times of trouble. The town of Kran itself might have also been on the territory of present-day Kazanlak or in its immediate vicinity.

Ключови думи:

Кran; Second Bulgarian Empire; Aldimir; Byzantium; castle; fortress; Middle Ages; the Shishmans; the Terters; the Smiletses; appanage; feudalism


489 изтегляния от 29.6.2022 г.