VTU Review: Studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences




                                                      ISSN: 2603-3283 (Online) 
                                                      ISSN: 2603-3070 (Print)

Списанието излиза само на английски език и от авторите се очаква да следват посочените по-долу правила за цитиране и цялостно оформяне на ръкописите.

VTU Review welcomes submissions of articles in the humanities and social sciences. Articles should be submitted via our online submission service. To do that, you need to register first. Please follow the Submission Guidelines that have been provided.


General information

Manuscripts should follow the MLA style as set in the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook (2021). Manuscripts, containing special fonts or characters, should be submitted as both .doc/dox and .pdf files.


Please use British spelling style consistently throughout your manuscript. However, we use “-ize” rather than “-ise” where variant spellings exist. We also prefer to place full stops and commas within quotation marks.


Articles and Review Essays

Submitted articles and review essays should have the following structure:

Title of the article/review essay: 14 Times New Roman, bold, title case capitalization;

Name(s) of author(s): 12 Times New Roman, bold;

Institutional affiliation: 12 Times New Roman, bold;


The author’s/authors’ academic title/s, institutional address/es and email/s will be displayed in a footnote on the first page of the article.

Abstract: 11 Times New Roman, single-spaced, justified, no more than 15 lines long.

Keywords: 11 Times New Roman, no more than 10.


▪ 12 Times New Roman, justified, double-spaced;

▪ all paragraphs, except the first one, should be indented;

▪ sections may or may not have headings;

▪ headings (12 Times New Roman, bold) begin flush left, using title case capitalization;

▪ all references are cited parenthetically in the text; quotations that are more than 4 lines of prose and 3 lines of verse start on a new line and are indented 1/2 inch from the left margin; quotation marks are omitted and the parenthetical citation comes after the closing punctuation mark.

Works Cited: 11 Times New Roman, single-spaced. 

Footnotes: 10 Times New Roman; Arabic numbering.

Length: 5 000 – 9 000 words, including references and footnotes.



Book reviews

Book reviews of ca 800 – 1 200 words should conform to the guidelines given for articles. The information on the author(s) and the book reviewed should be given as follows:

Name(s) of author(s)/editor(s). Title of book. Publishing House, Year. No. of pages. ISBN.



In-Text Citation

One author

Dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 186).

According to Foulkes, dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (186).

In Moll Flanders Defoe follows the picaresque tradition by using a pseudoautobiographical narration:

My true name is so well known in the records, or registers, at Newgate and in the Old Bailey, and there are some things of such consequence still depending there relating to my particular conduct, that it is not to be expected I should set my name or the account of my family to this work . . . It is enough to tell you, that . . . some of my worst comrades, who are out of the way of doing me harm . . . know me by the name of Moll Flanders. (1)


Two authors

Sleep researchers have found that even a short nap (10 minutes) resulted in improved alertness (Tietzel and Lack 216).


Three or more authors

Researchers have found that suggestibility is higher in children when misinformation is presented in a social context (Akehurst et al. 134).


More than one text by the same author

Reading is “just half of literacy. The other half is writing” (Baron, “Redefining” 194).


Online works

Website with an author and no page numbers

Like the Weird Sisters, Lady Macbeth is also portrayed as “harsh and crazy” (Donkor).


Work with no identifiable author or page numbers


The in-text citation for a website without an author is noted with the first noun phrase or words in the title in quotations and parentheses, followed by a period.


The Weird Sisters are the first characters introduced in the play and are also the first to foreshadow the demise of Macbeth (“Three Witches”).


E-books (books that lack a URL and that you use software to read on a personal device or computer: e.g. Kindle, EPUB, Nook editions)



  • (Author’s Last Name Page Number)
  • When no page numbers are listed in an e-Book, cite the chapter number instead.


In the library I found, to my great delight, a vast number of English books, whole shelves full of them, and bound volumes of magazines and newspapers (Stoker 24).

Asia and Europe meet in Izmir (Mansel ch. 2).


Works Cited:

Book by one author

Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, 2011.


Book by two or more authors

Ducrot, Oswald, and Tzvetan Todorov. Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Sciences of Language. Translated by Catherine Porter. Johns Hopkins UP, 1979.

Bear, Donald R., et al. Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction. 6th ed., Pearson Education, 2015.


Translated book

Puig, Manuel. Kiss of the Spider Woman. Translated by Thomas Colchie, Vintage Books, 1991.


Anonymous book (e.g. medieval poem)

Beowulf. Translated by Alan Sullivan and Timothy Murphy, edited by Sarah Anderson, Pearson, 2004.


Article in journal

Baron, Naomi S. “Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media.” PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.

Kincaid, Jamaica. “In History.” Callaloo, vol. 24, no. 2, spring 2001, pp. 620-26.


Chapter in edited collection

Copeland, Edward. “Money.” The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, edited by Edward Copeland and Juliet McMaster, Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. 131-48.


Multiple books and or articles by one author

Borroff, Marie. Language and the Poet: Verbal Artistry in Frost, Stevens, and Moore. U of Chicago P, 1979.

---. “Sound Symbolism as Drama in the Poetry of Robert Frost.” PMLA, vol. 107, no. 1, Jan. 1992, pp. 131-44. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/462806.

---, editor. Wallace Stevens: A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice-Hall, 1963.


Online works

Article on a website

Deresiewicz, William. “The Death of the Artist—and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur.” The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2014, theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/01/ the-death-of-the-artist-and-the-birth-of-thecreative-entrepreneur/383497/.

McNary, Dave. “Keanu Reeves, Alex Winter Returning for ‘Bill and Ted Face the Music.’” Variety, Penske Media Corporation, 8 May 2018, variety.com/2018/film/news/bill-and-ted-3-keanu-reeves-alex-winter-1202802946/. 


Book on a website

Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Masque of the Red Death.” The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58. HathiTrust Digital Library, hdl.handle.net/2027/coo.31924079574368.


Journal article in a database

Bockelman, Brian. “Buenos Aires Bohème: Argentina and the Transatlantic Bohemian Renaissance, 1890–1910.” Modernism/Modernity, vol. 23, no. 1, Jan. 2016, pp. 37–63. Project Muse, https://doi.org/10.1353/mod.2016.0011.


E-books (books without URLs, accessed on an eReader, eReader app, or on your computer using eReader software)

Cogman, Genevieve. The Invisible Library. Kindle ed. Ace, 2016.

Gray, Roxane. Hunger: A Memoir of (My) Body. EPUB, Harper, 2017.



According to the MLA Handbook (2021), there are cases in which the place of publication might matter. Thus, “books published before 1900 are conventionally associated with their places of publication” and for this reason, “in an entry for a pre-1900 work you may give the city of publication in place of the publisher’s name.” You may also provide the city of publication whenever it might help the reader locate an unfamiliar publisher.


Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Conversations of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret. Translated by John Oxenford, new ed., London, 1875.

Segni, Bernardo, translator. Rettorica et poetica d’Aristotile. Firenze, 1549.